Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; benthopelagic; depth range - m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C -
Indo-Pacific: Thailand, Sumatra, and Borneo.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 13.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9772); common length : 10.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9772)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Inhabits shallow coastal waters, estuaries and rivers (Ref. 9772). A food fish.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Sasaki, K., 2001. Sciaenidae. Croakers (drums). p.3117-3174. In K.E. Carpenter and V.H. Niem (eds.) FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the Western Central Pacific. Volume 5. Bony fishes part 3 (Menidae to Pomacentridae). Rome, FAO. pp. 2791-3380. (Ref. 9772)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 27.5 - 29.2, mean 28.6 °C (based on 868 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00912 (0.00435 - 0.01912), b=3.07 (2.90 - 3.24), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (14 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 904 [182, 3,302] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.86 [0.73, 4.80] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.1 [15.2, 19.3] % ; Omega3 = 0.546 [0.216, 1.275] g/100g ; Selenium = 81.1 [20.6, 280.6] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 49.3 [16.0, 144.5] μg/100g ; Zinc = 3.12 [1.26, 6.33] mg/100g (wet weight);