Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, Silver carp : fisheries, aquaculture

Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (Valenciennes, 1844)

Silver carp
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Image of Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (Silver carp)
Hypophthalmichthys molitrix
Picture by Naseka, A.M.

رده بندی / Names اسامي عام | مترادف | Catalog of Fishes(جنس, گونه ها) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

> Cypriniformes (Carps) > Xenocyprididae (East Asian minnows)
Etymology: Hypophthalmichthys: Greek, hypo = under + Greek, ophthalmos = eye + Greek, ichthys = fish (Ref. 45335);  molitrix: molitrix, approximately grinder (referring to the pharyngeal grinding apparatus) (Ref. 10294).  More on author: Valenciennes.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range بوم شناسي

; آب شيرين; لب شور موجوداتی که در محدوده وسیعی از آبهای آزاد از نزدیک بستر و یا روی کف بستر، در قسمت های میان آبی تا سطح آب و در برخی گونه ها با قابلیت پرواز، زندگی و تغذیه می کنند.; رود رو (Ref. 51243); تغييرات عمق 0 - 20 m (Ref. 6898).   Subtropical; 6°C - 30°C (Ref. 37797); 63°N - 8°N, 73°E - 148°E (Ref. 120939)

پراكنش كشورها | مناطق سازمان خوار و بار جهاني (FAO) | Ecosystems | ظهور | Point map | معرفي | Faunafri

Asia: Native to most major Pacific dainages of East Asia from Amur to Xi Jiang, China (Ref. 59043) and Hanoi, Vietman (Ref. 120939). Introduced around the world for aquaculture and control of algal blooms. Several countries report adverse ecological impact after introduction (Ref. 1739). Often confused with Hypophthalmichthys nobilis (Ref. 59043).

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / سن

Maturity: Lm 51.7  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 120 cm TL جنس نر / بدون خواص جنسي; (Ref. 86798); common length : 18.0 cm SL جنس نر / بدون خواص جنسي; (Ref. 35840); بيشينه وزن گزارش شده: 50.0 kg (Ref. 30578); بيشينه سن گزارش شده: 20 سال ها (Ref. 121658)

توصيف مختصر ريخت شناسي | ريخت ستجي بوسيله انداره گيري

خارهاي باله پشتي (کل): 1 - 3; شعاع نرم باله پشتي (کل): 6-7; خارهاي باله مخرجي 1-3; شعاع نرم باله مخرجي: 10 - 14. Body olivaceous to silvery. Barbels absent. Keels extend from isthmus to anus. Edge of last simple dorsal ray not serrated. Branched anal rays 12-13.5 (Ref. 13274). Differs from Hypophthalmichthys nobilis by having sharp scaleless keel from pectoral region to anal origin, 650-820 long, slender gill rakers, head length 24-29% SL, and plain pale coloration, greenish grey above, whitish below (Ref. 59043).

زيست شناسي     واژه نامه (بعنوان مثال epibenthic)

Found in their natural range in rivers with marked water-level fluctuations and overwinters in middle and lower stretches, swimming just beneath the surface. They feed in shallow (0.5-1.0 m deep) and warm (over 21°C) backwaters, lakes and flooded areas with slow current on phytoplankton and zooplankton (Ref. 30578, 10294). Bigger individuals from about 1.5 cm SL feed only on phytoplankton while larvae and small juveniles prey on zooplankton (Ref. 59043). Adults breed in rivers or tributaries over shallow rapids with gravel or sand bottom, in upper water layer or even at surface during floods when the water level increases by 50-120 cm above normal level. Conditions for spawning include high current (0.5-1.7 m/s), turbid water, temperatures above 15°C (usually 18-26°C) and high oxygen concentrations (Ref. 59043). Spawning ceases if conditions change (especially sensitive to water-level fall) and resumes again when water level increases. Juveniles and adults form large schools during spawning season. Mature individuals undertake long distance upriver migration at start of a rapid flood and water-level increase, able to leap over obstacles up to 1 m. After spawning, adults migrate to foraging habitats, In autumn, adults move to deeper places in main course of river where they remain without feeding. Larvae drift downstream and settle in floodplain lakes, shallow shores and backwaters with little or no current (Ref. 59043). In aquaculture, it can survive brackish water (up to 7 ppt) when released into estuaries and coastal lakes (Ref. 59043). Escape from fish farms are widely known even as they are stocked in large rivers and almost all still water bodies like lakes and ponds. Utilized fresh for human consumption and also introduced to many countries where its ability to clean reservoirs and other waters of clogging algae is appreciated even more than its food value (Ref. 9987). One of among 3 or 4 species of cyprinids whose world production in aquaculture exceeds 1 million tons per year (Ref. 30578).

Life cycle and mating behavior بلوغ | تولید مثل | تخم ریزی | تخم ها | Fecundity | توزاد ( لارو)

مآخذ اصلی Upload your references | مراجع | هماهنگ كننده | همكاران

Skelton, P.H., 1993. A complete guide to the freshwater fishes of southern Africa. Southern Book Publishers. 388 p. (Ref. 7248)

وضعيت در فهرست قرمز IUCN (Ref. 123251)

  نزديک به تهديد شدن (NT) ; Date assessed: 20 January 2011

CITES (Ref. 123416)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

خطر برای انسان ها

  Potential pest





استفاده انسانی

ماهي گيري – شيلات: تجاري; آبزي پروري: تجاري
FAO - آبزي پروري: production, نمايه گونه; ماهي گيري – شيلات: landings, نمايه گونه; Publication: search | FishSource | Sea Around Us

اطلاعات بيشتر

اسامي عام
مترادف
سوخت و ساز
شکارچیان
سم شناسي بوم زيستي
تولید مثل
بلوغ
تخم ریزی
Spawning aggregation
Fecundity
تخم ها
نمو تخم
مراجع
آبزي پروري
نمايه آبزي پروري
نژادها
ژنتيك
تواتر آلل ها
وارث
بيماري ها
فرآوری
Nutrients
Mass conversion
همكاران
عکس ها
Stamps, Coins Misc.
صداها
سيگواترا
سرعت
نوع شناگری
منطقه آبششي
Otoliths
مغزها
بینایی

ابزارها

گزارش های ويژه

بارگيری XML

منابع اينترنتي

Estimates based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.6250   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00912 (0.00783 - 0.01063), b=3.09 (3.05 - 3.13), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
Trophic level (Ref. 69278):  2.0   ±0.00 se; based on food items.
جهندگی (Ref. 120179):  متوسط, كمينه زمان لازم براي دو برابر شدن جمعيت 4/1 – 4/4 سال (K=0.16-0.29; tm=2-6).
آسيب پذيری (Ref. 59153):  High vulnerability (55 of 100) .
طبقه قيمت (Ref. 80766):   Unknown.
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 91 [31, 255] mg/100g ; Iron = 3.54 [1.54, 7.40] mg/100g ; Protein = 17 [16, 18] % ; Omega3 = 0.601 [0.271, 1.373] g/100g ; Selenium = 38.4 [12.1, 86.4] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 10.3 [1.8, 61.2] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.713 [0.368, 1.390] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.