Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, Silver carp : fisheries, aquaculture

Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (Valenciennes, 1844)

Silver carp
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Hypophthalmichthys molitrix
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Classification / Names ຊື່ສາມັນ | ຄຳສັບຄ້າຍຄືກັນ | Catalog of Fishes(ຕະກຸນ, ຊະນິດ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

> Cypriniformes (Carps) > Xenocyprididae (East Asian minnows)
Etymology: Hypophthalmichthys: Greek, hypo = under + Greek, ophthalmos = eye + Greek, ichthys = fish (Ref. 45335);  molitrix: molitrix, approximately grinder (referring to the pharyngeal grinding apparatus) (Ref. 10294).  More on author: Valenciennes.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range ນິເວດວິທະຍາ

; ນ້ຳຈືດ; ນ້ຳກ່ອຍ ກ່ຽວກັບ (ຢູ່)ເທິງຊັ້ນພື້ນດິນໃນທະເລເປີດ; ກຸ່ມຫຼືຊະນິດປາທີ່ມີການເຄື່ອນຍ້າຍພາຍໃນນ້ຳຈືດ (Ref. 51243); ລະດັບຄວາມເລິກ 0 - 20 m (Ref. 6898).   Subtropical; 6°C - 30°C (Ref. 37797); 63°N - 8°N, 73°E - 148°E (Ref. 120939)

ການແຜ່ກະຈາຍ ປະເທດ | ເຂດ FAO | ລະບົບນິເວດ | ການປະກົດຕົວ | Point map | ການແນະນຳ | Faunafri

Asia: Native to most major Pacific dainages of East Asia from Amur to Xi Jiang, China (Ref. 59043) and Hanoi, Vietman (Ref. 120939). Introduced around the world for aquaculture and control of algal blooms. Several countries report adverse ecological impact after introduction (Ref. 1739). Often confused with Hypophthalmichthys nobilis (Ref. 59043).

Length at first maturity / ຂະໜາດ / ນ້ຳໜັກ / Age

Maturity: Lm 51.7  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 120 cm TL ຕົວຜູ້/ບໍ່ມີເພດ; (Ref. 86798); common length : 18.0 cm SL ຕົວຜູ້/ບໍ່ມີເພດ; (Ref. 35840); ນ້ຳໜັກສູງສຸດທີ່ເຄຍຈັດພີມມາ: 50.0 kg (Ref. 30578); ອາຍຸສູງສຸດທີ່ເຄຍລາຍງານມາ: 20 ປີ (Ref. 121658)

Short description ສະລີລະວິທະຍາ | ການວັດແທກຮູບຮ່າງລັກສະນະພາຍນອກຂອງດິນ,ສັດ,ປາ…

ຄີ (ໜາມ)ແຂງຢູ່ຫຼັງປາ (ທັງໝົດ): 1 - 3; ຄີຫຼັງຂອງປາ (ຄີອ່ອນ) (ທັງໝົດ): 6-7; ຄີ(ໜາມ) ແຂງຢູ່ຄີກົ້ນປາ ກຸ່ມປາກະດູກແຂງ ຄວາມຖີ່ຂອງກຸ່ມຖ່າຍທອດພັນ ປາທີ່ມີການເຄື່ອນຍ້າຍຈາກທະເລໄປຫານ້ຳຈືດ ແລະນ້ຳຈືດຫາທະເລ ປາທີ່ມີການເຄື່ອນຍ້າຍຈາກທະເລແລະໄປໄຂ່ຢູ່ນ້ຳຈືດ ຄີກົ້ນຂອງປາ ສັດທີ່ມີກະດູກສັນຫັຼງ ການຖ່າຍທອດທາງກຳມະພັນຈາກພໍ່ແມ່ຫາລູກ 1-3; ຄີກົ້ນຂອງປາ: 10 - 14. Body olivaceous to silvery. Barbels absent. Keels extend from isthmus to anus. Edge of last simple dorsal ray not serrated. Branched anal rays 12-13.5 (Ref. 13274). Differs from Hypophthalmichthys nobilis by having sharp scaleless keel from pectoral region to anal origin, 650-820 long, slender gill rakers, head length 24-29% SL, and plain pale coloration, greenish grey above, whitish below (Ref. 59043).

ຊີວະສາດ     ຄຳແປສັບ (ຕ.ຢ. epibenthic)

Found in their natural range in rivers with marked water-level fluctuations and overwinters in middle and lower stretches, swimming just beneath the surface. They feed in shallow (0.5-1.0 m deep) and warm (over 21°C) backwaters, lakes and flooded areas with slow current on phytoplankton and zooplankton (Ref. 30578, 10294). Bigger individuals from about 1.5 cm SL feed only on phytoplankton while larvae and small juveniles prey on zooplankton (Ref. 59043). Adults breed in rivers or tributaries over shallow rapids with gravel or sand bottom, in upper water layer or even at surface during floods when the water level increases by 50-120 cm above normal level. Conditions for spawning include high current (0.5-1.7 m/s), turbid water, temperatures above 15°C (usually 18-26°C) and high oxygen concentrations (Ref. 59043). Spawning ceases if conditions change (especially sensitive to water-level fall) and resumes again when water level increases. Juveniles and adults form large schools during spawning season. Mature individuals undertake long distance upriver migration at start of a rapid flood and water-level increase, able to leap over obstacles up to 1 m. After spawning, adults migrate to foraging habitats, In autumn, adults move to deeper places in main course of river where they remain without feeding. Larvae drift downstream and settle in floodplain lakes, shallow shores and backwaters with little or no current (Ref. 59043). In aquaculture, it can survive brackish water (up to 7 ppt) when released into estuaries and coastal lakes (Ref. 59043). Escape from fish farms are widely known even as they are stocked in large rivers and almost all still water bodies like lakes and ponds. Utilized fresh for human consumption and also introduced to many countries where its ability to clean reservoirs and other waters of clogging algae is appreciated even more than its food value (Ref. 9987). One of among 3 or 4 species of cyprinids whose world production in aquaculture exceeds 1 million tons per year (Ref. 30578).

Life cycle and mating behavior ການຈະເລີນເຕັມໄວ | ການສືບພັນ | ການວາງໄຂ່ | ໄຂ່ | ຄວາມດົກຂອງໄຂ່ປາ | ຕົວອ່ອນ

Main reference Upload your references | ເອກະສານອ້າງອີງ | ຜູ້ປະສານງານ | ຜູ້ຮ່ວມມື

Skelton, P.H., 1993. A complete guide to the freshwater fishes of southern Africa. Southern Book Publishers. 388 p. (Ref. 7248)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)

  Near Threatened (NT) ; Date assessed: 20 January 2011

CITES (Ref. 123416)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Potential pest

Human uses

ການປະມົງ: ເປັນສີນຄ້າ; ການລ້ຽງສັດນ້ຳ: ເປັນສີນຄ້າ
FAO - ການລ້ຽງສັດນ້ຳ: ຜົນຜະລິດ, species profile; ການປະມົງ: landings, species profile; Publication: search | FishSource | ທະເລອ້ອມຂ້າງພວກເຮົາ


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Estimates based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.6250   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00912 (0.00783 - 0.01063), b=3.09 (3.05 - 3.13), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
ຊັ້ນເຂດຮ້ອນ (Ref. 69278):  2.0   ±0.00 se; based on food items.
ຄວາມຢືດຢຸ່ນ (Ref. 120179):  ຂະໜາດກາງ, ປະຊາກອນຕຳ່ສຸດທີ່ໃຊ້ເວລາສອງເທົ່າ 1.4 - 4.4 ປີ (K=0.16-0.29; tm=2-6).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  High vulnerability (55 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Unknown.
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 91 [31, 255] mg/100g ; Iron = 3.54 [1.54, 7.40] mg/100g ; Protein = 17 [16, 18] % ; Omega3 = 0.601 [0.271, 1.373] g/100g ; Selenium = 38.4 [12.1, 86.4] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 10.3 [1.8, 61.2] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.713 [0.368, 1.390] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.