Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, Bighead carp : fisheries, aquaculture, aquarium

Hypophthalmichthys nobilis (Richardson 1845)

Bighead carp
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Hypophthalmichthys nobilis
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分類 / Names 俗名 | 同種異名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopteri > Cypriniformes (Carps) > Xenocyprididae (East Asian minnows)
Etymology: Hypophthalmichthys: Greek, hypo = under + Greek, ophthalmos = eye + Greek, ichthys = fish (Ref. 45335);  nobilis: nobilis, meaning noble (Ref. 10294).  More on author: Richardson.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生態學

; 淡水; 半鹹淡水 底中水層性; 河川洄游 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 0 - ? m (Ref. 59043).   溫帶; 1°C - 38°C (Ref. 120904); 34°N - 21°N, 101°E - 123°E (Ref. 121042)

分布 國家 | FAO區域 | 生態系 | 發現紀錄 | Point map | 簡介 | Faunafri

Asia: China. Introduced to numerous countries and has achieved a near global distribution. However, its breeding requirements are very specialized and stocks are maintained by artificial reproduction or continuous importation. Several countries report adverse ecological impact after introduction (Ref. 1739). Often confused with Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (Ref. 59043).
亞洲: 中國。 引進了很多的國家而且已經達成一個接近全球的分布。 然而,它的繁殖需求非常被特殊化,而且分枝是藉著人工繁殖或不斷的輸入維持。 引入後的一些國家報告不利的生態衝擊。

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年齡

Maturity: Lm 65.0, range 55 - 70 cm
Max length : 146 cm SL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 59043); common length : 60.0 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 2059); 最大體重: 40.0 kg (Ref. 59043); 最大年齡: 20 年 (Ref. 59043)

簡短描述 型態特徵 | 形態測量圖

背棘 (總數): 3; 背的軟條 (總數): 7; 臀棘 1-3; 臀鰭軟條: 12 - 14. Body with numerous scattered small black blotches. Keels extend from pelvic base to anus. Barbels absent. Posterior margin of last simple dorsal ray not serrated. Branched anal rays 13-14.5 (Ref. 13274). Differs from Hypophthalmichthys molitrix by having scaled keel from pelvic to anal, 240-300 long gill rakes, head length 27-35% SL, dark overall coloration, flank with dark, large, very irregularly shaped blotches, fin bases and inferior parts of head and belly yellowish (Ref. 59043).
身體有很多的分散小黑色的斑塊。 龍骨脊從腹鰭基底到肛門延伸。 觸鬚不存在。 最後單一的背鰭鰭條的後緣不鋸齒狀的。 分枝的臀鰭鰭條 13-14.5.(參考文獻 13274)

生物學特性     字彙 (例如 epibenthic)

In its natural environment, it occurs in rivers with marked water-level fluctuations, overwinters in middle and lower stretches. Forages in shallow (0.5-1.5 m deep) and warm (over 24°C) backwaters, lakes and flooded areas with slow current. Feeds on zooplankton throughout its life under natural conditions (Ref. 120904). Breeds in very deep, very turbid and warm water above 18°C (usually 22-30°C), with high current (1.1-1.9 m/s) and high oxygen concentrations. Stocked to large rivers and almost all still water bodies as lakes and ponds. In aquaculture, adults can survive brackish water (up to 7 ppt) when released into estuaries and coastal lakes. Feeds mainly on zooplankton, but also takes algae as food (Ref. 59043). Bottom feeding fish (Ref. 6459). Undertakes long distance upriver migration at start of a rapid flood and water-level increase (in April-July depending on locality). Spawns in upper water layer or even at surface during floods. Spawning ceases if conditions change and resumes again when water level increases. After spawning, adults migrate for foraging habitats, Larvae drift downstream and settle in floodplain lakes, shallow shores and backwaters with little or no current. During autumn-winter, when temperature drops to 10°C, juveniles and adults form separate large schools and migrate downstream to deeper places in main course of river to overwinter (Ref. 59043). Marketed fresh and frozen.

出現於河川與湖泊。 主要吃浮游動物。 底部攝取食物的魚。 (參考文獻 6459) 在市場上銷售生鮮和冷凍。

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | | 孕卵數 | 仔魚

Produces up to 100,000 eggs (Ref. 2059). Eggs are yellowish, transparent, and hatch after about 2 days at temperatures around 25°C while drifting downstream in the deep open-water layer (Ref. 59043). 亞洲: 中國。 引進了很多的國家而且已經達成一個接近全球的分布。 然而,它的繁殖需求非常被特殊化,而且分枝是藉著人工繁殖或不斷的輸入維持。 引入後的一些國家報告不利的生態衝擊。

主要參考資料 Upload your references | 參考文獻 | 合作者 | 合作者

Kottelat, M., 2001. Freshwater fishes of northern Vietnam. A preliminary check-list of the fishes known or expected to occur in northern Vietnam with comments on systematics and nomenclature. Environment and Social Development Unit, East Asia and Pacific Region. The World Bank. 123 p. (Ref. 44416)

IUCN 瀕危狀態 (Ref. 123251)

  資料不足 (DD) ; Date assessed: 02 September 2010

CITES (Ref. 123416)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

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  潛能有害之物





人類使用

漁業: 高經濟性; 養殖: 商業性; 水族館: 公眾的水族館
FAO(養殖: 產生, 魚種描繪; 漁業: 產生; publication : search) | FishSource | 周邊海洋

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Estimates based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.6250   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01047 (0.00889 - 0.01233), b=3.09 (3.04 - 3.14), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
營養階層 (Ref. 69278):  2.8   ±0.33 se; based on food items.
回復力 (Ref. 120179):  中等的, 族群倍增時間最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (tm=3-5; tmax=20; K=0.15-0.27; Fec=50,000-1 million).
瀕危性 (Ref. 59153):  High to very high vulnerability (69 of 100) .
價格種類 (Ref. 80766):   Unknown.