Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
() > Lutjanidae
(Snappers) > Lutjaninae
Etymology: Lutjanus: Malay, ikan lutjan, name of a fish. More on author: Linnaeus.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 10 - 400 m (Ref. 9626), usually 21 - 70 m (Ref. 9626). Subtropical; 38°N - 38°S, 98°W - 31°W (Ref. 55253)
Western Atlantic: Bermuda (Anderson, pers. comm.) and North Carolina, USA to southeastern Brazil, including Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea (Ref. 9626). Most abundant around the Antilles, on the Campeche Bank, off Panama and the northern coast of South America. Lutjanus ambiguus (Poey, 1860), an intergeneric hybrid with Ocyurus chrysurus (Bloch) as demonstrated by Loftus (1992: Ref. 33006), followed by McEachran &. Fechhelm (2005: Ref. 78464).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 23.8, range 16 - 21.5 cm
Max length : 60.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 40637); common length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 55); max. published weight: 3.5 kg (Ref. 40637); max. reported age: 10 years (Ref. 3090)
soft rays: 8 - 9. Preopercular notch and knob weak. Pectoral fins short, not reaching level of anus. Scale rows on back rising obliquely above lateral line. Back and upper side pink to reddish, with a green tinge and diffused darker vertical bars. The lower sides and belly silvery with a yellow tinge. A series of 8 - 10 horizontal yellow or golden stripes on sides. A diffused black spot mainly above the lateral line and below the anterior portion of the soft dorsal-fin rays.
Adults are found over all types of bottom, but mainly around coral reefs and on vegetated sandy areas. In turbid as well as clear water (Ref. 9710). They often form large aggregations, especially during the breeding season. Feed at night on small fishes, bottom-living crabs, shrimps, worms, gastropods and cephalopods. Good food fish, it is marketed fresh.
Often form large aggregations, especially during the breeding season.
Allen, G.R., 1985. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 6. Snappers of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of lutjanid species known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(6):208 p. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 55)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 30303)
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes; aquarium: public aquariums
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 19.7 - 27.5, mean 24.7 °C (based on 260 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01445 (0.01290 - 0.01620), b=2.97 (2.94 - 3.00), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.8 ±0.2 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 4.8 (4.2 - 6.5) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 27 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.13-0.26; tm=2; tmax=10).
Prior r = 0.87, 95% CL = 0.57 - 1.30, Based on 6 stock assessments.
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (37 of 100) .