Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathydemersal; depth range 150 - 400 m (Ref. 27121). Deep-water; 25°N - 37°S, 12°E - 99°E (Ref. 54569)
Southeast Atlantic: Namibia (Ref. 5846), off South Africa (Ref. 4108).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 40 - ? cm
Max length : 100.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4108); common length : 50.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3427); max. reported age: 11 years (Ref. 36279)
Found on the deeper continental shelf and upper slope (Ref. 27121). Feeds mainly on bottom-living fishes (Ref. 27121, 27637) often on pilchard, round herring and horse mackerel (Ref. 36731). Minimum depth reported from Ref. 5213.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Caruso, J.H., 1986. Lophiidae. p. 363-366. In M.M. Smith and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Smiths' sea fishes. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. (Ref. 4108)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 8.9 - 14.8, mean 10.2 (based on 33 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5078 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01072 (0.00649 - 0.01768), b=2.99 (2.84 - 3.14), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.5 ±0.70 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (K=0.04-0.08; tm=4; tmax=11).
Prior r = 0.44, 95% CL = 0.29 - 0.66, Based on 1 stock assessment.
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (60 of 100) .