Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; demersal; amphidromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 50 - 60 m. Tropical
Indo-West Pacific: ranges from Pakistan eastwards to Thailand and southwards to Indonesia and Polynesia. Known from the Mekong delta (Ref. 12693).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 24 - ? cm
Max length : 92.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3290); common length : 55.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3290); max. reported age: 6 years (Ref. 52060)
Inhabits coastal waters, as well as estuaries and tidal rivers. Feeds mainly on invertebrates and small fishes. The sharp dorsal and pectoral fin spines can inflict painful wounds. Sold mostly fresh and dried-salted in markets.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Distinct pairing. Mouth brooding may be employed as a parenting strategy (Ref. 205).
Jayaram, K.C., 1984. Ariidae. In W. Fischer and G. Bianchi (eds.) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean fishing area 51. Vol. 1. FAO, Rome. pag. var. (Ref. 3290)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Traumatogenic (Ref. 58010)
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 23.1 - 28.1, mean 27.3 °C (based on 111 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5039 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00759 (0.00453 - 0.01269), b=3.10 (2.95 - 3.25), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.61 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 3.1 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.36; tm=2; tmax=6).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (36 of 100) .