Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; brackish; benthopelagic; pH range: 6.0 - 7.5; dH range: ? - 25; potamodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 50 - ? m (Ref. 4833). Tropical; 23°C - 28°C (Ref. 2059); 35°N - 8°N
Asia: large rivers of Indian subcontinent and Myanmar (Ganges, Krishna?, Godavari, Irrawaddy). Widely introduced in its geographical range for aquaculture. Reports from Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia are based on misidentifications.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 63 - ? cm
Max length : 300 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2686)
soft rays: 29 - 32. Eye small, its diameter more than 7 times in head length (in 18 cm long specimens); bright yellow caudal fin in adults; maxillary barbel extends to gill aperture; 23-28 gill rakers on first arch (Ref. 12693).
Obligate air-breathing (Ref. 126274); Found in large rivers and estuaries (Ref. 4833). Occurs in high estuary (freshwater tidal zone) as juveniles, moving to brackish water as sub-adults, and finally as adults to river mouths and inshore areas (Ref. 12693). Longevity given as 10 years (Ref. 2686) but appears too low. Feeds on snails, other mollusks (Ref. 1479) and plants (Ref. 4833). Reared for consumption in Thailand, Cambodia and Vietnam; excellent food fish with very white fine grained sweet flesh (Ref 2686). Marketed fresh (Ref. 12693).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Roberts, T.R. and C. Vidthayanon, 1991. Systematic revision of the Asian catfish family Pangasiidae, with biological observations and descriptions of three new species. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. 143:97-144. (Ref. 7432)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; aquaculture: commercial; gamefish: yes
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00912 (0.00445 - 0.01869), b=2.98 (2.79 - 3.17), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.51 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (K=0.04; tmax=10(?)).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Very high vulnerability (90 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 9.58 [5.32, 28.00] mg/100g; Iron = 0.355 [0.137, 0.964] mg/100g; Protein = 16 [15, 18] %; Omega3 = 0.194 [0.103, 0.381] g/100g; Selenium = 96.9 [51.0, 226.1] μg/100g; VitaminA = 9.49 [2.55, 35.16] μg/100g; Zinc = 1.58 [0.53, 2.65] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.