Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Siluriformes
(Catfishes) > Loricariidae
(Armored catfishes) > Hypostominae
Etymology: Hypostomus: Greek, hypo = under + Greek, stoma = mouth (Ref. 45335). More on author: Linnaeus.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; demersal; pH range: 6.2 - 8.2; dH range: ? - 28; depth range - m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 20°C - 28°C (Ref. 2060); 12°N - 25°S, 60°W - 51°W
South America: Guianan coastal drainages. Have been introduced to several Asian countries for the aquarium trade (Ref. 2060).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 50.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 26543); common length : 28.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 12193)
Morphology | Morphometrics
soft rays: 3 - 5. Body short and robust; caudal peduncle not depressed. Upper parts of head and body encased in longitudinal rows of scutes; lower surface of head and abdomen naked.
Feeds on algae and small crustaceans. Is cultured in ponds in Singapore and Hong Kong for the aquarium trade, where it is very popular (Ref. 2060).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Deposits eggs on smooth rocks. Eggs are guarded by one or both parents. May deposit eggs in depressions (Ref. 2060).
Burgess, W.E., 1989. An atlas of freshwater and marine catfishes. A preliminary survey of the Siluriformes. T.F.H. Publications, Inc., Neptune City, New Jersey (USA). 784 p. (Ref. 6868)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: subsistence fisheries; aquarium: highly commercial
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01479 (0.00665 - 0.03288), b=2.96 (2.78 - 3.14), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.5 ±0.26 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Assuming tmax>3; Fec = 3,000).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (44 of 100) .