Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; reef-associated; depth range 0 - 10 m (Ref. 90102). Tropical; 35°N - 25°S
Indo-West Pacific: Nicobar Islands, Andaman Sea and Japan to the tropical coasts of Australia.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 20 - ? cm
Max length : 45.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3132)
soft rays: 57 - 66;
Vertebrae: 74 - 84. Coloration varied, capable of changing its color. Spots or blotches on body form reticulations and crossbands; paler ventrally. Gill membranes ventrally free from the isthmus. Posterior otic sensory canal pore present. Cephalic sensory canal pores not pigmented.
Inhabits coastal waters, often in brackish conditions (Ref. 48636). Found hidden amongst rocks or coral rubble (Ref. 48636). Reproductive activity appears to be cyclical and the species may not be a protogynous hermaphrodite (Ref. 2077). Also found in coral reefs among crevices (Ref 90102).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Winterbottom, R., 1985. Revision and vicariance biogeography of the subfamily Congrogadidae (Pisces: Perciformes: Pseudochromidae). Indo-Pac. Fish. (9):34 p. (Ref. 531)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 25.2 - 29.3, mean 28.6 °C (based on 2277 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5156 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00389 (0.00180 - 0.00842), b=3.12 (2.94 - 3.30), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.67 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (44 of 100) .