Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; demersal; catadromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 20 - 350 m (Ref. 58488). Tropical; 26°C - 29°C (Ref. 4959); 36°N - 35°S, 20°E - 167°W
Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and East Africa to Samoa, north to southern Japan, south to the Arafura Sea (Ref. 9819), Australia, and Lord Howe Island.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 13.0, range 9 - 17 cm
Max length : 36.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9710); common length : 25.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4967)
(total): 11 - 12;
soft rays: 7 - 10. This species is distinguished by the following characters: body oblong moderately and laterally compressed, greatest body depth 2.5-3.2 in SL; head length 2.3-2.6 in SL; lower opercular spine extending well beyond the opercular flap; posttemporal bone exposed and serrate posteriorly; pectoral fin rays 13-14; gill rakers 6-8 +13-16 = 19-24; pored lateral line scales 75-100; horizontal scale rows above lateral line 13-17; caudal fin emarginate. Colour of body silvery white with 3-4 curved stripes from the nape to the hind part of the body, the lowermost continuing across the middle of the caudal fin; spinous part of dorsal fin with a blackish blotch dorsally on membranes between third and sixth spines; caudal fin with stripes, the lobes with dark tips (Ref. 48274, 90102).
Found over shallow sandy bottoms, in the vicinity of river mouths. Enter estuaries and rivers (Ref. 1479, 11230, 44894, 48635). Adults in loose aggregations (Ref. 48635). Juveniles common in sandy intertidal areas; often in tidal pools. Minimum depth reported is 20 m (Ref. 12260). Found in schools (Ref. 9710). Omnivorous (Ref. 7300), feeding on fishes, insects, algae, and sand-dwelling invertebrates (Ref. 9710). Spawn in the sea and juveniles migrate into fresh water (Ref. 2847). Eggs are guarded and fanned by the male parent (Ref. 205). Produce sound (Ref. 9137). Caught on all types of inshore fishing gear including gill nets, traps, handlines, and bottom trawls and marketed fresh and dried-salted (Ref. 48274).
Eggs are guarded and fanned by the male parent (Ref. 205).
Paxton, J.R., D.F. Hoese, G.R. Allen and J.E. Hanley, 1989. Pisces. Petromyzontidae to Carangidae. Zoological Catalogue of Australia, Vol. 7. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, 665 p. (Ref. 7300)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; aquaculture: commercial
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 17.6 - 27.9, mean 23.7 °C (based on 917 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.6250 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01660 (0.01323 - 0.02082), b=3.00 (2.93 - 3.07), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.9 ±0.5 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 4.6 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.24).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (37 of 100) .