Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Sparidae
Etymology: Pterogymnus: Greek, pteron = wing, fin + Greek, gymnos = naked (Ref. 45335). More on author: Valenciennes.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; benthopelagic; depth range 20 - 150 m (Ref. 27121). Subtropical; 17°S - 36°S
Southeast Atlantic: Namibia (Ref. 27121) and South Africa to Beira, Mozambique (Ref. 3198).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 20.4  range ? - 26 cm
Max length : 45.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3669); common length : 27.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3507)
Found in coastal waters, over soft bottoms (Ref. 27121). Forms large schools (Ref. 5213). Sold fresh.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Conflicting descriptions of the reproductive style of this species have been reported, e.g., Ref. 34231 describe this species as being a gonochorist (Ref. 28504). After clarificatory analyses on the protogynous characteristics (Ref. 7124) of this species, gonochorism is confirmed (Ref. 103751).
Bauchot, M.-L. and M.M. Smith, 1984. Sparidae. In W. Fischer and G. Bianchi (eds.) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean (Fishing Area 51). volume 4. [var. pag.] FAO, Rome. (Ref. 3507)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 13.4 - 25.2, mean 18.5 (based on 33 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01660 (0.00992 - 0.02776), b=3.05 (2.91 - 3.19), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.46 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (K=0.13-0.19; tm=6-7; tmax=11).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (47 of 100) .