Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Sparidae
Etymology: Rhabdosargus: Greek, rhabdos = stick + Latin, sargus = sargus (1591) (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Valenciennes.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; benthopelagic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range ? - 100 m (Ref. 3198). Tropical; 13°S - 36°S
Southeast Atlantic: Angola southward around coast of South Africa to Natal. Reported from Mozambique (Ref. 5213).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 23.0, range 22 - 24 cm
Max length : 65.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3688); common length : 40.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3688)
Found over sandy substrate. Juveniles use estuaries as nurseries (Ref. 27121). Feeds on worms, crustaceans, and mollusks especially mussels (Ref. 5213). Spawns during spring and summer close inshore (Ref. 36731).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Conflicting descriptions of the reproductive style of this species have been reported, e.g., Ref. 4359 describe this species as being a gonochorist (Ref. 28504). Also Ref. 103751.
Bauchot, M.-L. and J.-C. Hureau, 1990. Sparidae. p. 790-812. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 3688)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 14.5 - 26.4, mean 23.8 °C (based on 102 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5156 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01259 (0.00606 - 0.02615), b=3.03 (2.86 - 3.20), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.0 ±0.2 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 6.9 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.16).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (54 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): Moderate to high vulnerability (48 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 96.7 [51.8, 186.3] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.82 [0.42, 1.46] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.5 [16.3, 18.6] % ; Omega3 = 0.436 [0.219, 0.867] g/100g ; Selenium = 58.7 [26.9, 121.4] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 25.6 [7.2, 80.5] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.46 [0.91, 2.23] mg/100g (wet weight);