Mugil amarulus Valenciennes, 1936, Mugil kelaartii Günther, 1861, and Mugil longimanus Günther, 1861 are synonyms of Moolgarda perusii (Valenciennes, 1836) according to Eschmeyer (CofF ver Jan. 2013: Ref. 92887).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; demersal; catadromous (Ref. 26213); depth range 0 - 3 m (Ref. 86942). Tropical
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 15.1  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 41.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 30573); common length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 30573)
(total): 4 - 5;
soft rays: 9. Color greenish-grey dorsally, sides silvery. Second dorsal and anal fin with black margins (Ref. 9812). Posterior tip of upper jaw hidden when mouth closed. Pectoral fins 86-97% of head length, reaching below origin of first dorsal fin with axillary scale nearly half the length of fin. 37-43 scales in lateral series, scales with membranous digitated hind margin.
Occur in shallow coastal waters, including estuaries and backwaters, frequently enters freshwater. Form larger aggregations during spawning which takes place at sea. Young individuals enter tidal rivers. Feed on organic matter contained in sand and mud (Ref. 30573). Oviparous, eggs are pelagic and non-adhesive (Ref. 205). Marketed fresh and salted. Decays rapidly, but well liked when fresh.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Thomson, J.M., 1984. Mugilidae. In W. Fischer and G. Bianchi (eds.) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean (Fishing Area 51). volume 3. [pag. var.]. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 2830)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; bait: usually
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.8 - 29.3, mean 28.5 °C (based on 2356 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5625 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01148 (0.00991 - 0.01331), b=2.96 (2.92 - 3.00), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.4 ±0.21 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.3).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (30 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 209 [90, 442] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.44 [0.85, 2.74] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.5 [15.8, 19.1] % ; Omega3 = 0.598 [0.277, 1.361] g/100g ; Selenium = 71.3 [36.0, 153.5] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 12.4 [3.4, 44.7] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.72 [1.13, 2.76] mg/100g (wet weight);