Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; demersal; catadromous (Ref. 46888); depth range 10 - ? m (Ref. 40448). Tropical; 32°N - 35°S, 22°E - 136°W
Indo-Pacific: east coast of Africa, including Madagascar, Seychelles, Rodriguez; north to Sri Lanka and India (except Bay of Bengal), Andaman and Nicobar Islands, east to Indonesia, China, the Philippines, Japan, Marshall and Tuamoto islands, Melanesia and Polynesia (Ref. 2830). Distribution includes the Red Sea (Ref. 84159) and Persian Gulf (Ref. 66734).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 23.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 60.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4967); common length : 26.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4967)
(total): 4 - 5;
soft rays: 8 - 10. Greenish-grey dorsally; flanks and abdomen silvery; fins grey or bluish with dusky margins and may appear yellowish at base (Ref. 9812). Pectoral with golden base, and perhaps a dark spot (Ref. 9812). With rudimentary axillary scale.
Occur in shallow coastal waters, and from brackish water to freshwater regions of rivers (Ref. 41299). Form schools (Ref. 40448); in larger aggregations during spawning, which takes place at sea (Ref. 2830). Feed on small algae, diatoms, forams, benthic polychaetes, crustaceans, mollusks, organic matter and detritus; fry feed on copepods and floating algae (Ref. 40448). Oviparous, eggs are pelagic and non-adhesive (Ref. 205). Caught mainly during the spawning season and is sold fresh; the roe is highly appreciated.
Nakabo, T., 2002. Fishes of Japan with pictorial keys to the species, English edition I. Tokai University Press, Japan, pp v-866. (Ref. 41299)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; aquaculture: commercial; gamefish: yes
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.5 - 29, mean 28 °C (based on 810 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5078 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01148 (0.00927 - 0.01422), b=2.95 (2.92 - 2.98), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.6 ±0.26 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (K=0.10).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (60 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 129 [56, 279] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.04 [0.62, 2.13] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.4 [15.7, 19.1] % ; Omega3 = 0.571 [0.260, 1.328] g/100g ; Selenium = 70 [33, 155] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 18.4 [4.7, 74.5] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.51 [0.95, 2.48] mg/100g (wet weight);