Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Pleuronectiformes
(Flatfishes) > Cynoglossidae
(Tonguefishes) > Cynoglossinae
Etymology: Paraplagusia: Greek, para = the side of + Greek, plagos, plagios = oblique. More on author: Bloch.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; demersal; depth range 1 - 25 m (Ref. 30573). Tropical; 34°N - 32°S, 30°E - 154°E
Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and east coast of Africa to the Philippines, north to southern Japan, south to New Guinea and northeastern Australia.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 31.6 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 94837); common length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 30573)
Found on mud and sand bottoms of the continental shelf (Ref. 30573). Enters shallow estuarine waters (Ref. 4833) and tidal rivers (Ref. 1479).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Masuda, H., K. Amaoka, C. Araga, T. Uyeno and T. Yoshino, 1984. The fishes of the Japanese Archipelago. Vol. 1. Tokai University Press, Tokyo, Japan. 437 p. (text). (Ref. 559)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 25 - 29.2, mean 28.5 °C (based on 2940 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5156 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01023 (0.00561 - 0.01865), b=2.98 (2.82 - 3.14), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.4 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (28 of 100) .