Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Sparidae
Etymology: Sparodon: Latin, sparus = a fish with a golden head + Greek, odous = teeth (Ref. 45335). More on author: Castelnau.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 0 - 80 m. Tropical
Southeast Atlantic: Cape of Good Hope to Natal in South Africa. Also recorded from Djibouti (Ref. 5450) and from Mozambique (Ref. 5213).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 35.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 120 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3507); common length : 70.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3507)
Inhabits shallow coastal waters, mainly off rocky shores down to 80 m depth. Rarely enters estuaries. Young commonly found in tide pools. Feeds mainly on mollusks (Ref. 5213). An important food fish.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Smith, J.L.B. and M.M. Smith, 1986. Sparidae. p. 580-594. In M.M. Smith and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Smiths' sea fishes. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. (Ref. 3198)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 18.1 - 28.3, mean 26.8 (based on 204 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01905 (0.01074 - 0.03380), b=2.92 (2.77 - 3.07), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.8 ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (K=0.09; tm=5.4; tmax=26).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (66 of 100) .