Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; non-migratory; depth range 2 - 20 m (Ref. 90102). Tropical; 36°N - 36°S, 20°E - 155°W
Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and East Africa to Samoa, north to southern Japan, south to Lord Howe Island. Throughout Micronesia.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 18.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 56281); max. reported age: 20 years (Ref. 56281)
Usually solitary or in pairs in coral-rich areas of reef flats, lagoons, and seaward reefs to a depth of over 15 m. Juveniles inshore. In pairs or traveling in small groups (Ref. 48636). Feed on octocorallian and scleractinian coral polyps. Oviparous (Ref. 205). Form pairs during breeding (Ref. 205). Easy to maintain in the aquarium. Minimum depth reported taken from Ref. 30874.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Distinct pairing (Ref. 205). Monogamous mating is observed as both obligate and social (Ref. 52884).
Myers, R.F., 1991. Micronesian reef fishes. Second Ed. Coral Graphics, Barrigada, Guam. 298 p. (Ref. 1602)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.6 - 29.3, mean 28.4 °C (based on 2911 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02291 (0.01459 - 0.03596), b=3.00 (2.87 - 3.13), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.4 ±0.2 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (K = 0.14, tmax = 20).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (47 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 58.4 [32.8, 102.0] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.453 [0.227, 0.848] mg/100g ; Protein = 19 [18, 20] % ; Omega3 = 0.164 [0.095, 0.280] g/100g ; Selenium = 22 [10, 47] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 268 [69, 983] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.14 [0.71, 1.78] mg/100g (wet weight);