Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Clupeiformes
(Herrings) > Engraulidae
(Anchovies) > Engraulinae
Etymology: Stolephorus: Greek, stole, -es = garment + Greek, pherein = to carry (Ref. 45335). More on author: Lacepède.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; pelagic-neritic; anadromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 0 - 50 m (Ref. 189). Tropical; 27°N - 24°S, 38°E - 155°E (Ref. 189)
Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, from Gulf of Aden to Zanzibar, northern Madagascar and Mauritius (but not from Red Sea or Persian Gulf) eastward to Hong Kong and Papua New Guinea. Apparently replaced by Stolephorus apiensis in Fiji and Samoa.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 7.3, range 7 - 7 cm
Max length : 10.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 189); common length : 8.5 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 189)
soft rays: 18 - 19. Belly slightly rounded with 0-5 small needle-like pre-pelvic scutes. Maxilla tip pointed, reaching to or a little beyond hind border of pre-operculum, the latter convex, rounded. Small teeth on hyoid bones. Isthmus muscle tapering evenly forward. Body light transparent fleshy brown with a pair of dark patches behind occiput, followed by a pair of lines to dorsal fin origin. Bears a silver stripe on flanks. Closely resembles S. apiensis of Fiji and Samoa; S. brachycephalus of Papua New Guinea.
A schooling fish found in coastal waters, apparently entering brackish water. Occurs in Godavari estuary, India, from February to June in salinities of 19.6-32.0 ppt, but almost totally absent in subsequent flood season. Feeds on surface plankton, primarily copepods and prawn larvae. Eggs are oval with a knob. Used for food and fish meal (Ref. 4537).
Whitehead, P.J.P., G.J. Nelson and T. Wongratana, 1988. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (Suborder Clupeoidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/2):305-579. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 189)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 25 - 29.1, mean 28.3 (based on 1386 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00501 (0.00316 - 0.00794), b=3.18 (3.05 - 3.31), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.1 ±0.20 se; Based on food items.
Generation time: 1.2 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median LN(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=0.95-0.96).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (14 of 100) .