Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Sparidae
Etymology: Pachymetopon: Greek, pachys = fat + Greek, metopon = brow (Ref. 45335). More on authors: Gilchrist & Thompson.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 20 - 50 m. Subtropical; 28°S - 34°S
Western Indian Ocean: known only from Sodwana Bay to the Cape in South Africa.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 25.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 55.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5213); common length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3507)
Found on rocky substrate. Feeds on benthic organisms like worms, ascidians, crustaceans, mollusks and algae (Ref. 5213). Rarely caught by shore anglers. Esteemed food fish. Sold fresh in markets.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Also Ref. 28504.
Smith, J.L.B. and M.M. Smith, 1986. Sparidae. p. 580-594. In M.M. Smith and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Smiths' sea fishes. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. (Ref. 3198)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 15.7 - 23.8, mean 19.7 (based on 7 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.6250 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01349 (0.00692 - 0.02631), b=3.03 (2.87 - 3.19), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.48 se; Based on food items.
Generation time: 8.5 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median LN(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (K=0.13; tmax=12).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (59 of 100) .