Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; demersal; amphidromous (Ref. 46888); depth range 0 - 5 m (Ref. 86942). Tropical; 20°C - 30°C (Ref. 2060); 18°N - 25°S
Africa to Oceania: Madagascar to New Guinea, Australia and other islands of Melanesia.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 29.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 11344); max. published weight: 171.00 g (Ref. 9162); max. published weight: 171.00 g
soft rays: 9. Body relatively large, stout and cylindrical with a dorsally flattened head; generally greenish brown with 8-10 dark bars across sides and large black blotch at base of pectoral fins; lower half of head tan or yellowish with 3-4 dark brown to reddish stripes radiating from lower part of eye (Ref. 44894).
Adults occur in fresh water, estuaries and inshore (Ref. 86252). Found in a variety of habitats including rivers, swamps, coastal streams and floodplains over mud bottoms, often among dense aquatic vegetation or the cover of undercut banks. They feed mainly on aquatic insects and nymphs, but also takes lesser amount of algae, other aquatic plants and small crustaceans. Pelagic larval stage is found in marine water, but adults are always found in freshwater (Ref. 44894).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Allen, G.R., S.H. Midgley and M. Allen, 2002. Field guide to the freshwater fishes of Australia. Western Australian Museum, Perth, Western Australia. 394 p. (Ref. 44894)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: subsistence fisheries
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 26.6 - 29.3, mean 28.6 °C (based on 2159 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00708 (0.00370 - 0.01356), b=3.16 (2.98 - 3.34), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.6 ±0.2 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Fec = 100,000).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (33 of 100) .