Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 1 - 100 m (Ref. 96339). Tropical; 32°N - 7°S, 115°W - 78°W (Ref. 114953)
Eastern Pacific: Gulf of California to northern Peru.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 119 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 111131)
Found in shallow water on sandy bottoms, sometimes adjacent to reefs (Ref. 12951). Found buried in the sand during the day (Ref. 12951). Moves into shallow bays at night to feed; prefers polychaete worms, but may take sea squirts (Ref. 12951). Produces litters of up to 15 pups. Maturity size of males at ca. 36 cm TL; birth size at ca. 11 cm TL (Ref. 114953).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
McEachran, J.D., 1995. Narcinidae. Rayas eléctricas. p. 769-771. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para los Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9259)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 18.5 - 28.9, mean 25.8 °C (based on 82 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01259 (0.00716 - 0.02213), b=2.90 (2.74 - 3.06), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for species & Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.0 ±0.18 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Assuming fecundity<100).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (71 of 100).