Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Anabantiformes
(Gouramies, snakeheads) > Osphronemidae
(Gouramies) > Macropodusinae
Etymology: Betta: Malay/Javanese origin. Bleeker (1850, 1858) indicates Ikan Wadder Bettah as the local name of Betta trifasciata Bleeker, 1849 (now Betta picta, Valenciennes, 1846) in the Ambarawa Javanese dialect. Ikan Wader is a common Javanese name for smaller freshwater fishes, especially cyprinids (already used in Old Javanese). See Blust, R. & Trussel, S. Austronesian Comparative Dictionary. Web Edition (https://www.trussel2.com/acd/).. More on authors: Witte & Kottelat.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; benthopelagic. Tropical; 22°C - 26°C (Ref. 12468)
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 3.5 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7050)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Belongs to the Betta coccina complex which is distinguished by having only 9 abdominal vertebrae (vs. 10-11 in all other Betta) and usually a deep red color. Within this complex, Betta persephone is distinguished by its blackish coloration. Betta rutilans shares with Betta tussyae, a modal dorsal ray count of 12 (vs. 10 and 11 in other species of the complex), a modal subdorsal scale count of 9 (vs. 7), a greater length of dorsal base (20-23% SL, vs. 14-19), absence of a midlateral blotch (vs. usually present in male Betta coccina and Betta sp. Witte & Schmidt, submitted) and white pelvic filament (vs. black in Betta coccina). Betta rutilans differs from Betta tussyae by a lower mode in dorsal (I, vs. II) and anal spines (II, vs. III), smaller size (up to 25 mm SL, vs. 48, aquarium specimens), and absence of bluish green spots on proximal areas of unpaired fins (vs. usually present). The single cleared and stained specimens is apparently distinguished from all other Betta by having fused hypurals 6 and 7 (Ref. 26721).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Kottelat, M., A.J. Whitten, S.N. Kartikasari and S. Wirjoatmodjo, 1993. Freshwater fishes of Western Indonesia and Sulawesi. Periplus Editions, Hong Kong. 221 p. (Ref. 7050)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01122 (0.00514 - 0.02450), b=3.04 (2.87 - 3.21), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.1 ±0.4 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .