Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range ? - 10 m (Ref. 55182). Subtropical; 42°N - 38°S, 100°W - 12°W (Ref. 55182)
Western Atlantic: North Carolina, USA to Cuba, the Gulf of Mexico, and southern Brazil to Uruguay (Ref. 58839). Occurrence in the eastern Atlantic, specifically in Senegal and Guinea-Bissau have not been confirmed, and may be based on Carcharhinus brevipinna.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 123.0, range 150 - 139 cm
Max length : 190 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 10731)
Commonly found close inshore. Forms large schools. Feeds on small bony fishes and cephalopods. Viviparous (with a yolk-sac placenta), 1 to 6 young per litter. Size at birth 51 to 64 cm. Presumably eaten fresh and dried salted.
Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205). Viviparous, placental (Ref. 50449).
Compagno, L.J.V., 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 2 - Carcharhiniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(4/2):251-655. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 244)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Traumatogenic (Ref. 26340)
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 22.9 - 28.1, mean 27 °C (based on 617 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00479 (0.00219 - 0.01045), b=3.09 (2.92 - 3.26), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.2 ±0.7 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 4.6 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Fec=1).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (60 of 100) .