Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Cheilodactylidae
Etymology: Chirodactylus: Greek, cheir = hand + Greek, daktylos = finger (Ref. 45335). More on author: Günther.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 0 - 150 m (Ref. 9492). Subtropical; 23°S - 36°S
Southeast Atlantic: Walvis Bay, Namibia to possibly Natal, South Africa. Natal records are likely to be Chirodactylus jessicalorum.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 180 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9492); common length : 80.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9492)
The largest species of the family (Ref. 5319). Primarily an offshore species that prefers rocky or muddy banks. Feeds during the day on small, bottom-dwelling invertebrates. Occasionally also on squid and small fish. Also caught by artisanal and game fisheries (Ref. 9492).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Smith, M.M., 1986. Cheilodactylidae. p. 667-668. In M.M. Smith and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Smiths' sea fishes. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. (Ref. 5319)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 15.4 - 23.9, mean 18.1 °C (based on 40 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.6250 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01698 (0.00649 - 0.04441), b=3.00 (2.77 - 3.23), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.3 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Very high vulnerability (85 of 100) .