Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; demersal; pH range: 7.0 - 7.5; dH range: 8 - 12. Temperate; 10°C - 22°C (Ref. 1672); 44°N - 28°N
North America: occurs only in the USA in Atlantic and Gulf Slope drainages from southern New Hampshire to Perdido River in Florida, and south to central Florida.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 9.5 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5723); common length : 6.1 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 12193)
Inhabits heavily vegetated lakes, ponds, sluggish sand or mud-bottomed pools and backwaters of creeks and small to large rivers.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Produces up to 500 egss.
Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea and W.B. Scott, 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. Am. Fish. Soc. Spec. Publ. (20):183 p. (Ref. 3814)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.6250 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01230 (0.00598 - 0.02533), b=3.07 (2.89 - 3.25), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.43 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100).