Family Caulophrynidae - Fanfins
Caulophrynidae Caulophrynidae
No. in FishBase
Genera : 2 | Species : 5 Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
Fresh : No | Brackish : No | Marine : Yes
  First Fossil Record
From Nelson (1994). Distribution: Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific. Illicium lacking a distal bulb with light organ. Females play host to parasitic mature males. Pectoral radials 2. Dorsal fin 6 (in Robia) or 14-22 normal rays. Anal fin 5 (in Robia) or 12-19 rays. (Ref. 7463) Other distinguishing characters: Unlike any other anglerfish, metamorphosed females distinguished by having extremely long median dorsal- and anal-fin rays with the shortest rays measuring slightly over 60% SL (still no accurate record of their true length since, being thin and brittle, they are almost always broken off upon collection) and, although unsupported by interconnecting membranes, are well innervated and equipped with erector and depressor dorsalis muscles, allowing tactility for the detection of prey; extremely reduced maxilla, opercle, subopercle, posttemporal, and ventral portion of the cleithrum; having only 2 pectoral radials; lacking an expanded escal bulb (therefore very unlikely able to produce bioluminescence); with only 8 caudal-fin rays (a feature shared only with Cryptopsaras); neuromasts of the acoustico-lateralis system located at the tips of extremely long filaments; also, body of metamorphosed females short and globular; with a large horizontal to slightly oblique mouth; the lower jaw generally extending posteriorly past the base of the pectoral-fin lobe; with sphenotic spines; rudimentary quadrate and articular spines; lacking angular and preopercular spines; a well-developed symphysial spine on the lower jaw; upper jaw with 20 to 45 teeth, lower jaw with 12 to 34 teeth, and 1 to 5 vomerine teeth; skin is smooth and naked throughout, lacking dermal spinules. Metamorphosed males (known for only 5 specimens) with large eyes and olfactory organs; laterally directed nostrils in smaller specimens; close set and anteriorly directed anterior nostrils in larger specimens; irregular series of teeth along the ventral margin of the upper denticular bone; lower denticular divided into three lobes with 5, 8, and 5 teeth, respectively; large pectoral fins of about 40% SL; males parasitic, but probably facultative. Larvae characterized by having a short, rounded body and highly inflated skin. Notably large pectoral fins, extending posteriorly past the dorsal- and anal- fins; well developed pelvic fins having 3 or 4 rays that are lost during metamorphosis; well developed pelvic fins in young free-living stages lost with growth in later stages, including parasitic adults; apparently with no sexual dimorphism; a rudiment of the illicium projecting from the antedorsal margin of the head found in all known specimens. Dorsal-fin rays: 6 to 22, anal-fin rays: 5 to 19, pectoral-fin rays: 14 to 19, and caudal-fin rays: 8 (2 simple + 4 bifurcate + 2 simple). Largest known female 18.3 cm (C. pelagica); two known free-living males, both in metamorphosis, measures 0.77 and 1.1 cm; three known parasitic males measure 1.2 to 1.6 cm. (Ref. 86949)
Greek, 'kaulos' or 'caulis' = stem + Greek, 'phryne' = toad (according to Goode and Bean (1896): "a 'phryne'-like fish with the cephalic tentacle supported on a stemlike base") ( Ref. 86949).
  Reproductive guild
  Typical activity level
  Main Ref.
  Deep Fin Classification
Osteichthyes | Actinopterygii | Actinopteri | Neopterygii | Teleostei | Osteoglossocephalai | Clupeocephala | Euteleosteomorpha | Neoteleostei | Eurypterygia | Ctenosquamata | Acanthomorphata | Acanthopterygii | Percomorphaceae | Eupercaria | | | Lophiiformes | Ceratioidei | | Caulophrynidae

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[ e.g. 9948]
[ e.g. cephalopods]

Species/Synonymy list for the family Caulophrynidae as currently in FishBase

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The list ordered as follows:

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Scientifc name Status Senior/Junior synonym Combination
Caulophryne jordani Goode & Bean, 1896
Caulophryne pelagica (Brauer, 1902)
Caulophryne pietschi Balushkin & Fedorov, 1985
synonymseniorchange in rank
Caulophryne bacescui Mihai-Bardan, 1982
Robia legula Pietsch, 1979
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