Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; pelagic-neritic; depth range 15 - 100 m (Ref. 30573). Tropical; 30°N - 21°S, 36°E - 178°W
Indo-West Pacific: East Africa (Ref. 2871, 5213, 30573) to Southeast Asia, north to Japan, south to Queensland, Australia. Reported from Fiji (Ref. 12743).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 15.0  range ? - 19.2 cm
Max length : 40.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2872); common length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2872)
(total): 8 - 9;
soft rays: 25 - 28. Silvery grey with blue iridescence dorsally, silvery white ventrally; upper part of gill cover with a dusky black spot; fins pale yellow. Mouth large and oblique.
Found in coastal waters down to a depth of about 100 m (Ref. 30573) and between 15-90 m in western Indonesia (Ref. 12260). Feeds on sand-dwelling animals (Ref. 5213). Marketed fresh and dried salted.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Paxton, J.R., D.F. Hoese, G.R. Allen and J.E. Hanley, 1989. Pisces. Petromyzontidae to Carangidae. Zoological Catalogue of Australia, Vol. 7. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, 665 p. (Ref. 7300)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 25.3 - 28.6, mean 27.6 °C (based on 746 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01259 (0.00881 - 0.01798), b=2.96 (2.86 - 3.06), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.2 ±0.7 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=0.6).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (21 of 100) .