Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Acanthuriformes
(Surgeonfishes) > Leiognathidae
(Slimys, slipmouths, or ponyfishes) > Leiognathinae
Etymology: Leiognathus: Greek, leios = smooth + Greek, gnathos = jaw (Ref. 45335). More on author: Valenciennes.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; demersal; amphidromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 1 - 40 m (Ref. 3424). Tropical
Indo-West Pacific: coasts of India and Sri Lanka to China; south to Australia.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 18.1  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 13.5 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3424); common length : 11.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3424)
soft rays: 14. Body silvery; live or fresh specimens with a golden gleam. Head naked; with nuchal spine. Protracted mouth pointing downward. Scales minute. 2nd dorsal spine less than 1/3 of body depth.
Lives in shallow waters down to depths of about 40 m, predominantly near the bottom, found in schools. Feeds mainly on diatoms, copepods, Lucifer, nematodes and polychaetes (Ref. 3424).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Kühlmorgen-Hille, G., 1974. Leiognathidae. In W. Fischer and P.J.P. Whitehead (eds.) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Eastern Indian Ocean (fishing area 57) and Western Central Pacific (fishing area 71). Rome, FAO. Vol. II, pag. var. (Ref. 2108)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.6 - 29.2, mean 28.2 °C (based on 1182 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5039 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01380 (0.00785 - 0.02427), b=2.97 (2.81 - 3.13), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.0 ±0.33 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=0.90-1.75).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (15 of 100) .