Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Pleuronectiformes
(Flatfishes) > Scophthalmidae
Etymology: Lepidorhombus: Greek, lepis = scale + Greek, rhombos = paralelogram (Ref. 45335). More on author: Risso.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 7 - 800 m (Ref. 6501). Temperate; 60°N - 26°N, 15°W - 36°E
Northeast Atlantic: British Isles south to Cape Bojador, West Sahara and the Mediterranean.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 40.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4703); common length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3397)
soft rays: 65 - 69. Dorsal fin origin closer to tip of snout than to anterior edge of eye. Dorsal and anal fins terminate just a little on the blind side of the caudal peduncle. Lateral line forms a distinct curve above the pectoral fin.
Inhabits soft bottoms (Ref. 6501).
Distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205). A determinate spawner (Ref. 72169).
Nielsen, J.G., 1990. Scophthalmidae. p. 1026. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 6501)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 7.5 - 15.1, mean 11.5 °C (based on 292 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7520 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00468 (0.00380 - 0.00576), b=3.11 (3.05 - 3.17), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.3 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 5.8 (5.5 - 6.5) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 54 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.14-0.26; tmax=13).
Prior r = 0.34, 95% CL = 0.23 - 0.52, Based on 2 stock assessments.
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (38 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 44.2 [23.5, 83.6] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.29 [0.15, 0.50] mg/100g ; Protein = 20.1 [18.4, 21.6] % ; Omega3 = 0.674 [0.318, 1.459] g/100g ; Selenium = 16.2 [6.0, 43.0] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 12.2 [3.9, 35.8] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.437 [0.231, 0.960] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.