Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; demersal; depth range 10 - 50 m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C -
Indo-West Pacific: Pakistan eastwards to Malaysia and southwards to the Philippines and Indonesia.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 40.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3290); common length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3290)
Found in coastal waters, seldom entering tidal rivers and estuaries. Feeds mainly on invertebrates. The sharp dorsal and pectoral fin spines can inflict painful wounds. Caught mainly with bottom trawls, bamboo stake traps and longlines. Sold mostly fresh and dried-salted in markets.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Ferraris, C.J. Jr., 2007. Checklist of catfishes, recent and fossil (Osteichthyes: Siluriformes), and catalogue of siluriform primary types. Zootaxa 1418:1-628. (Ref. 58032)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Traumatogenic (Ref. 58010)
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 27.3 - 29.2, mean 28.5 °C (based on 640 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5039 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00813 (0.00384 - 0.01719), b=3.06 (2.88 - 3.24), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.37 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (37 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 174 [81, 342] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.05 [0.63, 1.72] mg/100g ; Protein = 16.9 [15.2, 18.6] % ; Omega3 = 0.503 [0.227, 1.067] g/100g ; Selenium = 67.3 [32.7, 141.2] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 28 [10, 81] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.41 [0.89, 2.51] mg/100g (wet weight);