Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Sciaenidae
(Drums or croakers)
Etymology: Pterotolithus: Greek, pteron = wing, fin + Greek, ous, otis = ear + Greek, lithos = stone (Ref. 45335). More on author: Cuvier.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; benthopelagic; non-migratory; depth range 10 - 100 m (Ref. 121818), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C - ; 24°N - 9°S, 68°E - 133°E
Indo-Pacific: Sri Lanka round the Bay of Bengal to Borneo.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 45.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9772); common length : 40.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9772)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Occurs in coastal waters and estuaries (Ref. 9772). Also caught with bottom trawls, and handlines (Ref. 9772). Marketed fresh as well as dried salted; swim bladder dried (Ref. 2113).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Chan, W., U. Bathia and D. Carlsson, 1974. Sciaenidae. In W. Fischer and P.J.P. Whitehead (eds.) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Eastern Indian Ocean (Fishing Area 57) and Western Central Pacific (Fishing Area 71). Volume 3. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 2113)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 27.4 - 29.2, mean 28.6 °C (based on 828 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00589 (0.00272 - 0.01274), b=3.09 (2.90 - 3.28), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.4 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (42 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 173 [86, 337] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.846 [0.494, 1.549] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.2 [15.9, 18.6] % ; Omega3 = 0.31 [0.12, 0.70] g/100g ; Selenium = 64.8 [28.1, 149.7] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 32.5 [10.1, 103.7] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.68 [1.04, 2.67] mg/100g (wet weight);