Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 3 - 24 m (Ref. 5227). Tropical; 7°N -
Southeast Pacific: Peru, including the Cocos and the Galapagos islands.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 91.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5590)
Found in temperate waters (Ref. 9345). Seen in groups of 3-20 from the surface to about 24 m (Ref. 5590). Feeds mainly on fish . Large individuals may slash prey into pieces before swallowing them. The front of each jaw is toothless and there is a series of large triangular teeth along each side of both jaws (Ref. 28023).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Merlen, G., 1988. A field guide to the fishes of Galapagos. Wilmot Books, London, England 60 p. (Ref. 5590)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 20.2 - 27.8, mean 23.5 °C (based on 107 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00724 (0.00338 - 0.01553), b=2.92 (2.75 - 3.09), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.5 ±0.80 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (52 of 100) .