Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; reef-associated; depth range 5 - 200 m (Ref. 12260), usually ? - 15 m (Ref. 90102). Tropical; 37°N - 39°S, 31°E - 171°W
Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and East Africa to Samoa, north to the Ryukyu Islands, south to Victoria, Australia. Migrated to eastern Mediterranean from the Red Sea via the Suez Canal (Ref. 5385). The exact range is uncertain because of confusion of this species with Sphyraena flavicauda (Ref. 9768).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 55.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9563); common length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9768)
soft rays: 9. Body elongate and subcylindrical with small cycloid scales; head long and pointed. Mouth large and horizontal, the tip of the lower jaw protruding; intermaxilla non-protractile. Preoperculum rectangular, with wide naked skin flap. First dorsal fin origin slightly before the pectoral fin tip, the first spine equal to the second. Pelvic fins well before the tip of the pectoral, closer to the anal than the tip of the lower jaw. Color is generally green above and silvery below.
Inhabits bays and estuaries (Ref. 9768). Found in schools in seagrass beds and rocky reefs (Ref. 9563). Feeds mainly on fishes. Exhibits diurnal behavior. Also caught with set nets (Ref. 9768). Sold fresh, frozen or dried salted in markets. From 15-120m in Ref. 012260.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Rose, J.H., 1984. Sphyraenidae. In W. Fischer and G. Bianchi (eds.) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean (Fishing Area 51). Vol. 4. FAO, Rome. pag. var. (Ref. 4752)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.1 - 29.2, mean 28.4 °C (based on 4556 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00708 (0.00585 - 0.00856), b=2.91 (2.87 - 2.95), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.5 ±0.4 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=0.5-0.9).
Prior r = 1.03, 95% CL = 0.68 - 1.54, Based on 1 stock assessment.
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (25 of 100) .