Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; pelagic-neritic; depth range 3 - 6 m (Ref. 48637). Tropical
Northwest Pacific: southern Japan to the East China Sea and northern South China Sea (Ref. 12068).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 50.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 56557)
Found near shore on mud, sandy mud or rock bottoms (Ref. 11230, 48637). Usually forms large schools (Ref. 48637). Feeds on fishes.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Masuda, H. and G.R. Allen, 1993. Meeresfische der Welt - Groß-Indopazifische Region. Tetra Verlag, Herrenteich, Melle. 528 p. (Ref. 9137)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: highly commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 21.9 - 29.3, mean 28.4 °C (based on 1621 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00759 (0.00453 - 0.01269), b=2.93 (2.79 - 3.07), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.5 ±0.8 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 2.6 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (31 of 100) .