Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Tetraodontiformes
(Puffers and filefishes) > Monacanthidae
Etymology: Stephanolepis: Greek, stephanos = crown + Greek, lepis = scale (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 20 - 50 m (Ref. 28016). Tropical; 30°N - 2°S, 32°E - 62°E
Western Indian Ocean: Persian Gulf (Ref. 3467) to the Red Sea and immigrated via the Suez Canal to the Mediterranean Sea (Ref. 11441).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 30573)
Lives in coastal rocky substrate, usually with vegetation. Consumes small invertebrates plucked from rocks (Ref. 52629). One of the earlier Lessepsian immigrants actually well
established in the eastern part of the Mediterranean Sea and it inhabits various substrates and is usually encountered on rocky bottoms with vegetation, sandy and muddy bottoms as well as seagrass meadows (Ref. 104758).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Hutchins, J.B., 1984. Monacanthidae. In W. Fischer and G. Bianchi (eds.) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean (Fishing Area 51). Vol. 3. FAO, Rome. pag. var. (Ref. 3467)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 23.5 - 29.2, mean 26.1 °C (based on 42 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5312 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01660 (0.01100 - 0.02504), b=2.92 (2.80 - 3.04), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.8 ±0.3 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (30 of 100) .