Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Siluriformes
(Catfishes) > Plotosidae
Etymology: Tandanus: A local name, tandan, in Australia.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; demersal; potamodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 10 - ? m. Temperate; 5°C - 25°C (Ref. 2060); 12°S - 43°S
Oceania: endemic to Australia.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 45.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 90.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5259); common length : 45.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5259); max. published weight: 6.8 kg (Ref. 36739); max. reported age: 8 years (Ref. 1107)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Head large; thick and fleshy lips; nostrils tubular. First dorsal fin high, with a strong serrated spine and 6 rays. Skin tough and smooth. Body coloration in adults vary from olive-green to brown, black or purplish dorsally and white ventrally. Urogenital papilla triangular in females; longer and cylindrical in males.
Adults inhabit slow moving streams, lakes and ponds with fringing vegetation. They swim close to sand or gravel bottoms. More abundant in lakes than in flowing water (Ref. 44894). Usually solitary but juveniles sometimes form loose aggregations. Mainly bottom-feeders (Ref. 44894). Feed on insect larvae, prawns, crayfish, mollusks, and small fishes. Breeding occurs between spring and mid-summer when water temperatures rise to between 20° and 24°C (Ref. 44894). Utilized for human consumption.
Water temperature (20-24 °C) considered the primary spawning stimulus. There is direct pairing during spawning. Male builds nest (0.6-2.0 m in diameter) and cares for eggs in the nest up to 2 weeks. The nest is made of gravel and rocks with a central sandy depression in which the female deposits up to 20,000 eggs depending on her size (Ref. 5259). Eggs scattered into the rubble are tended and guarded by the male after the female departs (Ref. 205). Hatching occurs in 7-10 days at 18°C (Ref. 240).
Allen, G.R., 1989. Freshwater fishes of Australia. T.F.H. Publications, Inc., Neptune City, New Jersey. (Ref. 5259)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5625 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00692 (0.00297 - 0.01609), b=3.06 (2.86 - 3.26), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.48 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 11.0 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (tm=5; K=0.10).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (37 of 100) .