Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Beloniformes
(Needle fishes) > Zenarchopteridae
(Internally fertilized halfbeaks)
Etymology: Zenarchopterus: Particle zen, derived from zao = to give life + Greek, archos = anus + Greek, pteron = fin.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; pelagic-neritic; depth range - m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C -
Western Central Pacific: Muna Island, Celebes and Arnhem Land, Australia.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 18.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 10988); 6.7 cm (female)
Morphology | Morphometrics
soft rays: 8 - 9;
Vertebrae: 41. Upper jaw slightly longer than wide; width divided by length 0.81-0.87. A small black basicaudal spot present at end of silvery lateral band. Pectoral fin much shorter than head length; head length divided by lower jaw length 0.61-0.64. Males unknown (Ref. 10988).
Found in harbors and mangrove areas (Ref. 48635).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Collette, B.B., 1974. The garfishes (Hemiramphidae) of Australia and New Zealand. Records of the Australian Museum 29(2):11-105. (Ref. 10988)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.9 - 29.3, mean 28.5 °C (based on 1597 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00427 (0.00181 - 0.01006), b=3.02 (2.81 - 3.23), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.9 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .