Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; reef-associated; catadromous (Ref. 46888); depth range 0 - 5 m (Ref. 86942). Subtropical; 20°S - 30°S
Indo-Pacific: East Africa to the Marquesan Islands, north to the Philippines and the South China Sea, south to Tonga and tropical Australia.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 30.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9812); common length : 18.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9812)
School in shallow coastal waters; enter lagoons, estuaries, and rivers to feed (Ref. 9812). Feed on plant detritus, microalgae, minute benthic organisms, and organic matter in sand and mud; juveniles feed on planktonic algae (Ref. 9812). Oviparous, eggs are pelagic and non-adhesive (Ref. 205). Also caught with stakenets and is marketed fresh (Ref. 9812).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Myers, R.F., 1991. Micronesian reef fishes. Second Ed. Coral Graphics, Barrigada, Guam. 298 p. (Ref. 1602)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 23.9 - 26.7, mean 25.4 °C (based on 212 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5078 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01148 (0.00928 - 0.01420), b=2.95 (2.92 - 2.98), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.3 ±0.14 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (42 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 51.5 [18.7, 134.6] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.4 [0.7, 3.1] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.5 [16.7, 20.3] % ; Omega3 = 0.509 [0.206, 1.345] g/100g ; Selenium = 16 [6, 39] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 47 [8, 254] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.62 [0.90, 3.07] mg/100g (wet weight);