Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Mugiliformes
(Mullets) > Mugilidae
Etymology: Pseudomyxus: Name from the genus Myxus preceeded by Greek prefix 'pseudo' meaning 'false'.. More on author: Valenciennes.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; demersal; catadromous (Ref. 51243). Subtropical; 25°S - 35°S
Africa: east coastal estuaries and rivers from the Breë River to Kosi Bay (South Africa).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 23.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 45.0 cm FL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7248)
Adults occur in freshwater to estuarine conditions. Adults breed at sea; juveniles move into estuaries and enter rivers in late winter or early spring. Females remain in freshwater for 7 years, males for 4 years. Return to estuaries before maturing sexually prior to spawning. Oviparous, eggs are pelagic and non-adhesive (Ref. 205). Feed on benthic algae and small invertebrates over muddy bottom (Ref. 6465). Decline in population from obstruction, by dams and weirs, of free passage into rivers.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Breed at the sea throughout the year. Juveniles move into estuaries and enter rivers usually in late winter or early spring. Males remain in freshwater until 4 years, females for up to 7 years. Fish return first to estuaries before maturing sexually prior to spawning (Ref. 7248).
Thomson, J.M., 1986. Mugilidae. p. 344-349. In J. Daget, J.-P. Gosse and D.F.E. Thys van den Audenaerde (eds.) Check-list of the freshwater fishes of Africa (CLOFFA). ISNB, Brussels, MRAC; Tervuren; and ORSTOM, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 3573)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 15.3 - 24.9, mean 22.6 °C (based on 20 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01148 (0.00647 - 0.02037), b=2.98 (2.84 - 3.12), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.8 ±0.27 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (50 of 100) .