Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Pleuronectiformes
(Flatfishes) > Citharidae
(Citharids) > Citharinae
Etymology: Citharoides: Latin, cithara = lire like instrument + Greek, oides = similar to (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathydemersal; depth range 182 - 200 m (Ref. 5321). Deep-water; 2°S - 29°S
Western Indian Ocean: known only Kenya to Natal, South Africa.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5213)
Found in coastal waters, over sandy and muddy bottoms (Ref. 5213).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Nielsen, J.G., 1984. Citharidae. In W. Fischer and G. Bianchi (eds.) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean (Fishing area 51). Vol. 1, FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9612)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 13.8 - 17.6, mean 14.8 (based on 4 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.6406 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00832 (0.00342 - 0.02024), b=3.07 (2.87 - 3.27), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.5 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (36 of 100) .