Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Scorpaeniformes
(Scorpionfishes and flatheads) > Scorpaenidae
(Scorpionfishes or rockfishes) > Pteroinae
Etymology: Parapterois: Greek, para = the side of + Greek, pterois, derived from pteron = wing, fin (Ref. 45335). More on author: Bleeker.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 40 - 300 m (Ref. 4313). Temperate
Indo-West Pacific: Natal, South Africa to southern Japan (Ref. 4313). Two populations apparently exists, the Western Pacific and SE African coast (Ref. 54479).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 38.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 90102)
Usually found in sheltered coastal bays and fine sand or muddy habitats. May partly bury itself in the substrate during the day and is easily overlooked. When disturbed, the brightly colored pectoral fins probably serves to startle predators. The large fins serve primarily to corner prey when hunting (Ref. 48635). Trawled on soft bottom in coastal waters (Ref. 4313), to 300 m depth (Ref. 48635).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Eschmeyer, W.N., 1986. Scorpaenidae. p. 463-478. In M.M. Smith and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Smiths' sea fishes. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. (Ref. 4313)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 14.9 - 26.8, mean 22 (based on 553 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00871 (0.00408 - 0.01859), b=3.13 (2.94 - 3.32), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.9 ±0.6 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (52 of 100) .