Teleostei (teleosts) > Gadiformes
(Cods) > Bregmacerotidae
Etymology: Bregmaceros: Greek, bregma = front of the head + Greek, keras, -atos = horn (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; pelagic-oceanic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 0 - 2000 m (Ref. 26165). Subtropical; 25°N - 6°N, 62°E - 100°E
Indian Ocean: confirmed from the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal. Reports from outside this area are most likely misidentifications (A.S. Harold, pers. comm., 18/08/98) and name reported from western Pacific may be a misidentification of B. pseudolanceolatus (Ref. 114229).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 9.6 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4496); common length : 7.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2872); max. published weight: 8.50 g (Ref. 128684)
soft rays: 58 - 69;
Vertebrae: 52 - 58. Body is elongate, brownish and with speckling above and silvery below. The cheek and lower head also silver. Single occipital ray long and delicate, extending to near the middle of the second dorsal fin (Ref. 46075). Pelvic fins are jugular.
If taxonomy is correct, both onshore in brackish water and oceanic. According to larval survey, occurrence in the tropics is wide (Ref. 9902, 45075). Feed on planktonic crustaceans. Also caught with bagnets (Ref. 2872).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Cohen, D.M., 1990. Bregmacerotidae. p. 524-525. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 4496)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 5.6 - 13.1, mean 8.8 °C (based on 755 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5001 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00372 (0.00152 - 0.00908), b=3.19 (2.97 - 3.41), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.42 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Assuming tm=1).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100).
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): Moderate to high vulnerability (48 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 371 [67, 1,117] mg/100g; Iron = 2.89 [0.77, 7.08] mg/100g; Protein = 17.3 [14.9, 19.7] %; Omega3 = 0.283 [0.119, 0.635] g/100g; Selenium = 41.6 [13.0, 146.7] μg/100g; VitaminA = 63.1 [14.0, 271.9] μg/100g; Zinc = 1.04 [0.55, 2.50] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.